Rodora N. Gamboa
February 10, 2006, Phela Convention Center, General Santos City
delivered during th PICHE National Convention
The world population is expected to increase from 6.5 billion today to 9.1 billion by the year 2020. Water will be in high demand with increasing population. The increases in water demand gave rise to the stress in water resources and dire need for alternative sources such as rainwater. In Davao City, attempts have been made to advocate rainwater use; however, it has not yet gained much ground. This study was made to determine the level of acceptability of rainwater use in Davao City in terms of quantity, quality, usage and cost, and presents an advocacy program based on the findings gathered.
Keywords: rainwater, water consumption, advocacy.
The study is a social descriptive-correlative research and attempts to support the move of the city to promote rainwater utilization. Prior to an advocacy program, the level of acceptability is recommended to be determined to find out the areas where advocacy will be concentrated.
In a report of Salas (2005) to the World Bank, she mentioned that acceptability is one social indicator that should be used in assessing sustainability of rainwater catchment systems. Her study is related to this study with regard to theme but different in terms of parameters and scope. While acceptability is high in the places in her study area, she reasoned that it is possible that such high percentage is a product of non-availability of other options.
The study covers the water users in Davao City. It is however limited to those users served by the Davao City Water District (DCWD) which are classified into residential, commercial and government.
This study mainly aimed to determine the relationship between the levels of water consumption and acceptability of rainwater among users in Davao City. Specifically, the study sought to find out the level of water consumption as classified according to type of user. It also seeks to determine the level of acceptability of rainwater among users in Davao City in terms of quantity, quality, usage and cost. The study attempts to determine whether or not there is a significant difference in the level of water consumption when analyzed by location (by congressional district) and whether or not there is a significant difference in the level of acceptability among users in Davao City when analyzed by location. Lastly, this study came up with an advocacy program on rainwater use in Davao City.
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Researcher-made questionnaires served as the main instrument of this study and it was designed to primarily elicit responses on the level of acceptability of rainwater use. A survey was conducted to 540 sample respondents from a population of 151,088, stratified according to type of user and location. In determining the water consumption of the three types of users, secondary data from DCWD was used.
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Based on the survey and secondary data gathered, the findings and results are presented below.
4.1 Water Consumption
The overall level of water consumption is average. Residential and commercial users have an average level of water consumption while government users have the low level of water consumption.
The results on the level of water consumption among the three types of users can be attributed on the degree of the needs and various uses of the water and of the water conservation practices of the users.
4.2 Level of Acceptability
As presented in Table 1, the level of acceptability of rainwater among users in Davao City is moderate. It can be noted that for residential and commercial users, the level of acceptability is high in terms of usage and low in terms of quality.
Table 1Level of Acceptability Among Users in Davao City
The results indicate that the users have moderate level of acceptability of the rainwater as alternative resource, which could be influenced with their perceptions on the quality of the rainwater, quantity and cost. But in terms of its usage, rainwater can be an alternative resource of water for many uses or domestic purposes. The moderate level of acceptability is because there are several options where people in Davao City can get water.
Further, the study reveals that regardless of the location or district, the level of water consumption nor the level of acceptability of users is not affected or influenced. Moreover, the research shows that the level of water consumed by the users does not affect or influence their level of acceptability on rainwater.
4.3 Advocacy Program
Anchored on the findings of the study, an advocacy program was crafted addressing perception of quantity, quality and cost, while strengthening the perception on usage. The advocacy program highlights specific targets, development strategies, two-year matrix of proposed programs and projects and a monitoring plan.
The level of water consumption of the water users in Davao City is on the average level. The level of acceptability of rainwater among users is moderate. The level of acceptability based on the three indicators (quantity, quality and cost) is of moderate level. The level of acceptability of rainwater based on its usage is high. The level of water consumed by the users does not affect or influence their level of acceptability on rainwater. An advocacy program can be crafted based on the level of acceptability of users.
Salas, J. C. (2003). An Exploratory Study on Rainwater Harvesting in the Philippines. World Bank.
Sharma, R. (2005). An Introduction to Advocacy. United States of Agency for International Development.
United Nations Environment Programme. (2004). Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augumentation in Small Island Developing States. UNEP.